Intellicast's Climate Guide To Russia

Russia is a vast land that has “the classic example” of a continental climate. Though it has long borders on two oceans (the Arctic and the Pacific), the Arctic waters are mostly frozen and the Pacific, for the most part, lies downwind.

Given the vast land surface and the great distance to upstream maritime influence, Russia has the extremes of temperature and the paucity of precipitation typical of distinctly continental climates. Because of its high latitude position, the extremes of cold are especially great. The lowest recorded temperature in Russia of -90°F (set at Oimekon on February 6, 1933 and Verkhoyansk on February 7, 1892) are lower than any continent except Antarctica. Portions of Siberia have an amazing 120°F variation in average temperature from January (-60°F) to July (+60°F).

Much of the country has just two seasons - winter which is long, and summer which is relatively short. The transition between seasons occurs very rapidly.

In general, the climate gets colder as one travels east through Russia. 45% of the country (mostly the north and east) has a permafrost -- a permanently frozen subsoil. This makes construction and agriculture in these areas very difficult.

Most of the rivers and harbors freeze in the winter for periods that range up to 150 days. Ground transportation also tends to be hampered by frequent snow and ice in winter. This increases the importance of rail and air transportation for the transfer of goods during the long cold winters.

Precipitation, typical of continental climates, is relatively low. For a good part of the country, the precipitation is too low to support large-scale agriculture. In other areas where rainfall is generally more favorable, like the southern steppes, summer drought can occur and drastically cut yields.

Most of the precipitation comes in the spring and early summer in the form of showers and thunderstorms. Snows in winter are frequent in many areas, but tend to be of the light variety. Though very cold temperatures usually keeps the snow from melting, the winds can sweep some areas bare from time-to-time while piling up high drifts in other locations.

Just two areas of Russia have relatively mild climates, the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula and the east shores of the Black Sea. These areas are considered summer vacation spots. They feature lots of sunshine and high temperatures, which average around 80°F.

LENINGRAD, RUSSIA

Month
Record Low
Normal Low Normal High Record High Average Rainfall Average # Of Rain Days
January -25°F
-32°C
8°F
-13°C
19°F
-7°C
38°F
3°C
1.4 inches
35 mm
21
February -27°F
-33°C
11°F
-12°C
22°F
-6°C
38°F
3°C
1.2 inches
30 mm
17
March -16°F
26 °C
18°F
-8°C
32°F
0 °C
54°F
12 °C
1.2 inches
31 mm
14
April 8°F
-13°C
33°F
1°C
46°F
8°C
68°F
20°C
1.4 inches
36mm
12
May 24°F
-4°C
42°F
6°C
59°F
15°C
81°F
27°C
1.8 inches
45 mm
13
June 35°F
2°C
51°F
11°C
68°F
20°C
85°F
29°C
2.0 inches
50 mm
12
July
41°F
5°C
55°F
13°C
70°F
21°C
91°F
33°C
2.8 inches
72 mm
13
August 34°F
1°C
55°F
13°C
69°F
20°C
88°F
31°C
3.1 inches
78 mm
14
September 29°F
-2
°C
47°F
9°C
60°F
15
°C
84°F
29
°C
2.5 inches
64 mm
17
October 17°F
-8°C
39°F
4°C
48°F
9°C
65°F
18°C
3.0 inches
76 mm
18
November -1°F
-18°C
28°F
-2°C
35°F
2°C
54°F
12°C
1.8 inches
46 mm
18
December -10°F
-23°C
18°F
-8°C
26°F
-3°C
41°F
5°C
1.6 inches
40 mm
22

MOSCOW, RUSSIA

Month
Record Low
Normal Low Normal High Record High Average Rainfall Average # Of Rain Days
January -25°F
-32°C
3°F
-16°C
15°F
-9°C
36°F
2°C
1.5 inches
39 mm
18
February -25°F
-32°C
8°F
-14°C
22°F
-6°C
37°F
3°C
1.5 inches
39mm
15
March -18°F
-28°C
18°F
-8°C
32°F
0°C
61°F
16°C
1.4 inches
36 mm
15
April -14°F
-26°C
34°F
1°C
50°F
10°C
76°F
25°C
1.5 inches
38 mm
13
May 28°F
-2°C
46°F
8°C
66°F
19°C
86°F
30°C
2.1 inches
53 mm
13
June 34°F
1°C
51°F
11°C
70°F
21°C
87°F
30°C
2.3 inches
58 mm
12
July
41°F
5°C
55°F
13°C
73°F
23°C
89°F
32°C
3.5 inches
88 mm
15
August 37°F
3°C
53°F
12°C
72°F
22°C
88°F
31°C
2.8 inches
71 mm
14
September 28°F
-2
°C
45°F
7°C
61°F
16
°C
83°F
28
°C
2.3 inches
58 mm
13
October 5°F
-15°C
37°F
3°C
48°F
9°C
74°F
24°C
1.8 inches
45 mm
15
November -7°F
-22°C
26°F
-3°C
35°F
2°C
53°F
12°C
1.9 inches
47 mm
15
December -17°F
-27°C
15°F
-10°C
24°F
-5°C
41°F
5°C
2.1 inches
54 mm
23

KIEV, RUSSIA

Month
Record Low
Normal Low Normal High Record High Average Rainfall Average # Of Rain Days
January -13°F-25°C 14°F-10°C 24°F
-4°C
46°F
8°C
2.3 inches
58 mm
18
February -8°F
-22°C
17°F
-8°C
28°F
-2°C
49°F
9°C
2.3 inches
58 mm
18
March -13°F
-25°C
25°F
-4°C
37°F
3°C
72°F
22°C
2.0 inches
51 mm
16
April 21°F
-6°C
41°F
5°C
56°F
14°C
81°F
27°C
1.8 inches
45 mm
11
May 31°F
-1°C
51°F
11°C
69°F
21°C
86°F
30°C
1.9 inches
49 mm
13
June 39°F
4°C
56°F
14°C
75°F
24°C
93°F
34°C
2.2 inches
55 mm
11
July
48°F
9°C
59°F
15°C
77°F
25°C
94°F
34°C
3.6 inches
91 mm
13
August 38°F
3°C
58°F
14°C
76°F
24°C
94°F
35°C
3.6 inches
91 mm
12
September 35°F
2
°C
50°F
10°C
68°F
20
°C
85°F
30
°C
1.2 inches
30 mm
8
October 23°F
-5°C
42°F
6°C
56°F
13°C
79°F
26°C
1.3 inches
33 mm
10
November 1°F
-17°C
32°F
0°C
42°F
6°C
65°F
18°C
2.2 inches
56 mm
15
December -12°F
-24°C
22°F
-6°C
30°F
-1°C
51°F
11°C
2.3 inches
59 mm
19

VERKHOYANSK, RUSSIA

Month
Record Low
Normal Low Normal High Record High Average Rainfall Average # Of Rain Days
January 8°F
-13°C
38°F
3°C
51°F
10°C
68°F
20°C
7.9 inches
201 mm
17
February 10°F
-12°C
39°F
4°C
51°F
10°C
69°F
21°C
5.0 inches
126 mm
14
March 26°F
-3°C
42°F
5°C
55°F
13°C
76°F
25°C
5.1 inches
130 mm
15
April 28°F
-2°C
48°F
9°C
61°F
16°C
84°F
29°C
4.6 inches
116 mm
14
May 42°F
6°C
55°F
13°C
69°F
21°C
88°F
31°C
3.7 inches
93 mm
12
June 47°F
8°C
61°F
16°C
75°F
24°C
92°F
33°C
4.0 inches
101 mm
10
July
55°F
13°C
66°F
19°C
80°F
26°C
96°F
35°C
2.4 inches
60 mm
7
August 56°F
13°C
66°F
19°C
80°F
27°C
96°F
35°C
4.0 inches
101 mm
9
September 48°F
-9
°C
62°F
16°C
76°F
25
°C
90°F
32
°C
4.2 inches
106 mm
9
October 26°F
-3°C
53°F
12°C
68°F
20°C
84°F
29°C
3.6 inches
91mm
9
November 31°F
-1°C
49°F
10°C
62°F
17°C
79°F
26°C
5.6 inches
143 mm
12
December 19°F
-7°C
43°F
6°C
56°F
13°C
73°F
23°C
7.2 inches
183 mm
15

SOCHI, RUSSIA

Month
Record Low
Normal Low Normal High Record High Average Rainfall Average # Of Rain Days
January 25°F
-32°C
3°F
-16°C
15°F
-9°C
36°F
2°C
1.5 inches
39 mm
18
February -25°F
-32°C
8°F
-14°C
22°F
-6°C
37°F
3°C
1.5 inches
39 mm
15
March -18°F
-28°C
18°F
-8°C
32°F
0°C
61°F
16°C
1.4 inches
36 mm
15
April -14°F
-26°C
34°F
1°C
50°F
10°C
76°F
25°C
1.5 inches
38 mm
13
May 28°F
-2°C
46°F
8°C
66°F
19°C
86°F
30°C
2.1 inches
53 mm
13
June 34°F
1°C
51°F
11°C
70°F
21°C
87°F
30°C
2.3 inches
58 mm
12
July
41°F
5°C
55°F
13°C
73°F
23°C
89°F
32°C
3.5 inches
88 mm
15
August 37°F
3°C
53°F
12°C
72°F
22°C
88°F
31°C
2.8 inches
71 mm
14
September 28°F
-2
°C
45°F
7°C
61°F
16
°C
83°F
28
°C
2.3 inches
58 mm
13
October 5°F
-15°C
37°F
3°C
48°F
9°C
74°F
24°C
1.8 inches
45 mm
15
November -7°F
-22°C
26°F
-3°C
35°F
2°C
53°F
12°C
1.9 inches
47 mm
15
December -17°F
-27°C
15°F
-10°C
24°F
-5°C
41°F
5°C
2.1 inches
54 mm
23
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